Posted by: jackjohnston | May 1, 2010

Threaded Discussion #5 Web 2.0 Tools Chapter 4

Summary: Chapter 4
As more educators have included technology in their teaching in hopes of greater learner success, unfortunately the results of their efforts have not reflected the desired results. Correct implementation of technology and effective instructional models and strategies that support this implementation in the learning environments are key to their effectiveness as tools to facilitate desired learner outcomes. Today, many educators are discovering and implementing Web 2.0 technologies in the learning environments of their students. This chapter suggests the need for appropriate frameworks to be developed for Web 2.0 technologies effective use in education. The frameworks should address the complexities and the cognitive demands associated with Web 2.0 learning, in order to take full advantage of Web 2.0 innovations and achieve optimum learner success .

Web 2.0 technologies consists of tools such as blogs, podcasting, wikis, and social networking. These learning tools involve a participatory, collaborative, and dynamic approach to learning, in which knowledge is created through the collective efforts of the participants. As a result, instructional designers and teachers are faced with the challenge of constructing models and strategies that align with the ill-structured, non-linear fashion of Web 2.0 learning.

Web 2.0 learning and the cognitive demands associated with it are different from those of traditional Web technologies. First generation web technology consists of one to many with the main purpose being the consumption of information. Web 2.0 learning is characterized by shared ownership, simultaneous traversals of multiple knowledge spaces, and social negotiation. Web 2.0 learning creates challenges in cognitive demands related to cognitive load, selection/use of appropriate cognitive strategies, and integration of information across multiple domains.

Early instructional design models were designed for goal oriented, well-structured, linear learning. They were based on behavioral principals. SID models following in the 80s and 90s, were based on Gagne’s (1965) learning theory of five outcomes related to human learning. The SID models were linear and limited what the instructor could teach and what the learner could learn. The theory of constructivism applied to instructional design resulted in changed. The resulting non-linear SID models are descriptive, emphasizing priori instructional goals and objectives, thus consisting of limitations when applied to ill-structured Web 2.0 learning. Recently, new models have been developed to provide a framework for effective online learning. These emerging e-learning instructional design models such as the WisCom Design Model, the “T5” Design Model, and the Three-Phase Design Model address some aspects of Web 2.0 learning, but appear to lack a systematic approach to coordinate various components of learning in the design process. WisCom and T5 both focus on the existing content as a starting point and do not provide for knowledge creation and construction. The 3PD model lacks measurement of bottom-up behaviors, and how feedback between teacher, learner, and others is used to form a collective wisdom for learning.

The author of Chapter 4 proposes a new framework for online learning that differs from traditional instructional design models and suggests that it provides an alternative view to these design models. The framework is characterized by learner-centered approach, interactive social communications, and dynamic learning in Web 2.0 application. The theoretical bases for this framework includes: emergence theory, functional contextualism, literature in individual differences, metacognition, and self-regulation. Implementation of the framework is presented from a conceptional perspective. The designer first determines what behavior should be involved in the learning activity and the criteria that should be applied to the behavior. Next , a refined open-ended learning which includes posteri goals and objectives is initiated. Finally, the design promotes metacognition and self-regulation. Thus, the proposed framework takes into account the cognitive demands involved in Web 2.0 learning, encourages learning that focuses on metacognition and self-regulation, enhances knowledge integration and construction of schemas-of-the-moment in ill-structured learning, and creates an environment by connecting activities with behavior to form a dynamic learning setting in Web 2.0 application. The author concludes the chapter by explaining several suggestions for future research and exploration.

The chapter explains the development of instructional design models for online learning. It provides information about learning theory and its application to online instructional design. The chapter gives theoretical bases for why the previous instructional models have not resulted in desired learner outcomes, and for proposed developments in instructional design models for Web 2.0 learning. The information was apropos to the needs of education today. The educational setting is changing, and appropriate use of the emerging technologies is imperative in creating technology rich learning environments for our students. Web 2.0 application for greater learner outcomes is dependent on proper implementation of the tools and effective instructional models and strategies that support this implementation. Discussing these issues was one of the many strengths of the chapter.
Understanding learning theory as it applies to technology in the classroom is imperative to providing an appropriate learning environment for students. Technology in the classroom is much more than a space for students to play and gather information. This chapter explains appropriate use of innovative technologies from a theoretical bases, therefore meeting a need in improving instruction.
Online learning, in my opinion is here to stay and I believe that we will see more and more use of it in education, especially as generation y continues to enter the classroom as educators. I hope that instructors gain understanding in the correct implementation of this technology and effective instructional models and strategies that support this implementation, so that we witness the desired learner outcomes.
The chapter provided a lot of new information for me. I have used webquests in my instruction, but had never investigated the development of online instructional design models or the learning theory that they are based on. There were others areas of the chapter that I was more familiar with. Understanding how children learn has been an important part of my education and interest. For example, early childhood development, how children learn to read, and gifted learning are addressed in principles of learning. In addition, teaching metacognitive skills is an important aspect of teaching gifted students.
I thoroughly enjoyed reading and studying this chapter. This chapter helped me better understand the use of technology and learning. Reading this chapter helped to confirm that I am in the right area of study. It left me with questions, in that, I have a greater desire to investigate learning theories and instructional design. I have always been interested in theories of learning as a bases for creating appropriate learning environments. Today, with the addition of technology to this picture, makes learning even more exciting to explore. I find this area of research and development fascinating. (However, right now I am having cognitive load issues.)



  1. […] Assignments: SlideShare Podcasting Wiki Mobile Web Site Social Networking Site Online Presentation Web 2.0 Tool […]

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